Nature nanotechnology for energy
Bioenergy: new approaches
Traditionally, the processes of bio generation of electricity in the membranes of mitochondria of cells of animals and humans are explained by most researchers in the electrochemical theory of Mitchell as a combination of "dark" process of "breathing" and electron transfer in the electron transport chain (etc) to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP) . During the search for a new model that the author bio generation were first developed and used an interdisciplinary (at the intersection of Biophysics, bioenergy and nanotechnology) approaches to theoretical and applied studies on the mechanism of electricity generation by nanostructures inner membranes of mitochondria of cells of animals and humans .
Known for the versatility of the process bio generation of electricity and protein enzymes cells of all living things – from plants to human  – suggests that the cage of the animal and of man in the "dark" (when there is no light or little) of the process bio generation of electricity also accumulates the thermal energy of the environment.
Because the nanostructure is a natural level of organization of living and non-living, we can see a convergence in which molecular biology provides his ideas and components, and nanotechnology provides new tools and methods for exploring and modeling fundamental processes of cell biology. This synthesis of knowledge and methods necessary, including, to create a new model of the mechanism of bio generation of electricity, characterized by high quantum and power efficiencies . Such a model could also be used in new energy nanotechnology.
Disclosure of the mechanism of such nanobiomedicine, its modelling may allow us to learn from acting at the scale of nanometers of nature, as quickly, safely, effectively and autonomously to produce electricity.
Everyone involved in bio generation of electricity protein complexes of the inner membrane of mitochondria have a size of from 10 to 100 nm. This means that the study of the properties of this molecular complex (nanostructures) of the respiratory etc, closed on paired membrane (also to the nanostructure), and they implement the mechanism of bio generation of electricity should be based on knowledge and techniques of nanoscience, primarily nanobiophysics and nanobiomedicine.
The data of researches of domestic and foreign biochemists show that etc includes three main nanoscale protein complex , which are separated from each other in an asymmetric (with separated charges) potential energy of the nanoscale barriers. In the nanostructures of these complexes there are other nanosurgery with a smaller potential difference between the separated charges. In fact etc is periodic nanomortar embedded in the conductive electrons of the protein nanostructures.
In nanoproduce the conduction electrons are usually in a state of continuous random motion, with the wave characteristics and specific speeds (energies) characteristic of the chemical nature of the atoms of the material. In the process of electron transport in nanostructures inner membranes of mitochondria, resulting in a charge separation occurs, the electrical potential difference on asymmetric nanobacteria. The electrical current in the etc promotes the charge separation and also to separate the conjugate membrane (one asymmetric nanobreeze), which converts concentrated electrical energy into chemical that is stored in the molecule ATP, which provides the synthesis of the cell proteins. Thus, in a closed conjugated to the membrane (nanoconductor electricity) etc using conductive nanostructured protein complexes and built-in asymmetric nanobacteria is the conversion of random motion of conduction electrons in a unidirectional electric current.
Nanobiophysics mathematical model of the mechanism of generation of electricity resulting from charge separation in asymmetric nanobacteria etc based on the solution of the schrödinger equation given by Wentzell, Kramers and Brilliana . Calculations based on this mathematical model showed that the built-in closed nanorobotic asymmetric nanobreeze the appropriate form can be obtained the electrical potential difference due to spontaneously created on nanobreeze additional electric field.
Thus, the predominantly unidirectional spontaneous movement of conduction electrons, always with well-defined energies, occurs only when nanosurgery additional applied potential difference. She, on the one hand, increases the velocity of the electrons and thereby increases the length of their free path in nanoproduce, on the other hand, reduces the height of potential nanosurgery, making it more transparent for electrons.
Since the conduction electrons in nanoproduce are always in a state of continuous motion, with the wave characteristics and specific speeds (energies), the external influence to excite asymmetric nanosurgery not required. In the closed nanoproduce such nanosurgery will always be in a state of spontaneous excitation, and the system will tend to your MPP as – a unidirectional motion of electrons. However, if the width of nanobacteria will be disproportionately high relative to the mean free path of electrons, this effect will not occur .
Nanobiomagnetics model of the mechanism of generation of electricity explains the using system of environmental heat so that the electron, having met on its way asymmetric, the potential nanoseries, loses part of its energy (speed) to overcome his top level. In this case, rolling, figuratively speaking, from a lower level, it takes her significantly less. However, being behind nanobeam in the same nanoproduce, the electron inevitably, due to its chemical nature, will need to increase their energy (speed) to its previous value, which can only happen by absorbing the necessary amount of energy through multiple interactions with other atoms and electrons of nanorobotics, which, in turn, will add her, apparently, due to the thermal energy of the environment . No violation of the law of conservation of energy is not here, how much was taken thermal energy from the environment, exactly the same are highlighted in the active consumers of the generated electricity.
Thus, based on the principle of "asymmetric nanosurgery" and nanobiophysics new model of the mechanism of generation of electric power cells in animals and humans designed the theory of control of motion of charges in a closed circuit nonprofiteasy with perfect single-crystal structure (the length of run of electrons), and with built-in asymmetric potential energy nanobattery. This theory can be used to develop new, safe and highly effective nanotechnology for energy generators.
Calculations based on this mathematical model showed that for one of the simplest forms of nanobacteria when kinetic electron energy of 4 eV and the height of nanosurgery 2 eV created by the voltage will be about 0.1 In . If in a confined nanoproduce create n nanobacteria, the voltage at each subsequent will increase. The result can be increased several times, if you limit the number of degrees of freedom of the moving electrons. The main condition for this is the maximum reduction of the width of nanobacteria, and minimum, to the size of the atom, the thickness of nanorobotics that there is, for example, two-dimensional crystals. A possible explanation of the described phenomena on the basis of Dirac’s theory involving electrons with negative energy, does not change the main conclusions, but may affect their mathematical formalization .
Thus, the disclosure nanobiophysics nature of the mechanism of generation of electric power cells in animals and humans, its based modeling of nanostructures, including having a single crystalline structure of two-dimensional crystals may allow you to learn safely and to efficiently produce electricity.
Nanotechnology for electric power
The implementation of nanotechnology in the energy industry requires the creation of nanorobotic with a maximum reduction of its cross section, up to the size of an atom, and the single-crystal structure, providing the greatest length of the free path of electrons, as well as the development of modern methods of obtaining an asymmetric potential energy nanobacteria – nanoheterostructures.
As the current-carrying element of nanorobotic – perhaps the use of nanotubes or two-dimensional crystal of graphene. Researchers of Institute of Technology (Georgia, USA) and DuPont have created a strip of graphene in the form of "folds" width up to 20 nm with semiconductor properties. Electronic properties of the material obtained was measured by irradiating it on a synchrotron installation. It was found that the folding of graphene on the substrate creates a characteristic of the semiconductor band gap, transforming it into a semiconductor. In the same areas where the surface was flat, graphene retains the properties of a good conductor. Thus, by controlling the surface shape, can be obtained on a single sheet of graphene as a metallic and a semiconducting zone that will make it possible to create a fully carbon microchips.
In two-layer graphene barriers completely opaque to charge carriers, and if between two layers of graphene to create a potential difference, the energy spectrum also appears a "gap", the size can easily be controlled, including locally .
The General principle of creating asymmetric nanobacteria – a combination of chemically dissimilar atoms or two-dimensional single crystals, the energy levels of the outer electrons which differ by a significant amount. And, of course, the smaller the absolute number of electrons in this nanoproduce, the greater the asymmetry in their motion . In the limit it will be one hundred percent, if the conductor will move only one electron (one-electron graphene transistor). Of particular importance asymmetric nanosurgery is that it provides preferential movement of electrons in a closed electrical circuit. The width of these nanobacteria should be commensurate with the length of the free path of electrons, of order 10-6 cm (in single crystals it may be about 10–4 cm), a height to match the small magnitude of the locking voltage.
The group of A.Geim of Manchester University, created the graphene and its modifications, has developed new fabrication techniques of nanoheterostructures. To obtain three-dimensional crystals – nanoheterostructures with a variety of properties – it is proposed to use chemical modifications of graphene: graphane and dielectrics of flytographer, two-dimensional crystals of boron nitride, a semiconductor phosphor  and other chemical elements, placing them the monolayers one above the other. The heterostructure was obtained, for example, encapsulation of graphene between two crystallites of boron nitride, which also protects it from environmental influences . Such heterostructures can be used to create prototypes of asymmetric energy nanobacteria.
In the laboratory A. Games under the guidance of R. Gorbacheva inert gas obtained is stable in the air, layers upon layers of 2D materials. Blocks of these stable 2D crystals will serve, according to the researchers, the standard heterostructures for various devices, including, perhaps, light batteries for mobile energy storage . In addition to these items made in France asymmetric nanoseries (molecule) and nanoampere . Researches on creation of nanoaccumulator (supercapacitors) are in several developed countries of the world.
Thus, we have considered nanobiophysics model of the mechanism of bio generation of electricity, theory of control movement of charges (electrons) in a closed nonprofiteasy chain, and on their basis – nanotechnology for new industry. Already designed or created two-dimensional crystals and other nanostructures, which can be the basis for implementing the nanotechnology pilot scheme of a fundamentally new, environmentally friendly and highly efficient self – contained power device nanoelectrospray iEnergyNano.
Models of artificial analogues of the bio-energy of living cells are trying to create and overseas. Swiss scientist, Professor M. Gratzel suggested nanostructure – "the element of Graetzel", which also via charge separation on the nanostructure (similar to the way asymmetric energy nanobacteria) models the transformation of the plant cell sunlight into electricity. At the National Institute of standards and technology NIST (USA), developed a model of an artificial analogue of electric eel cells . This confirms the prospects of our ongoing development of the pilot scheme of nanoelectrospray iEnergyNano modeling nanobiomagnetics living cell. This scheme consists of nanorobotics, periodic nanosurgery, nanoamperes, and closed on nanoaccumulator (supercapacitor), which in the absence of active load will accumulate and store the generated electricity.
On the basis of nanoelectromagnetics iEnergyNano can create chips in parallel connection which will form diagram of the portable electric batteries eperdu. In the summation of the magnitudes of operating currents of its power will be enough to use instead of chemical batteries in cell phones, laptops and other multimedia devices, and possibly in the future, and in electric vehicles and home power plants.
Thus, it is possible to create fundamentally new, like a living cell using environmental heat, for a long time and continuously operating, particularly efficient and environmentally friendly generation devices nanoenergetic – self-contained, portable, relatively light and cheap battery supplied eperdu, which could form part of alternative systems of Autonomous, distributed energy.