Import substitution of silicon carbide electronic components. Strategic partnership of LETI and Svetlana PJSC
• high level of restrictions in the supply of critical products to the Russian market;
• importance of the product to ensure the country's security and its relevance to the domestic market;
• availability of production and technological base for the manufacturing of domestic analogues;
• availability of scientific and technical competencies and staffing.
Additional conditions for the implementation of the import substitution process are:
• availability of innovative technologies;
• reasonableness and possibility of investing in modernization or creation of new productions.
When creating a program of measures in the field of import substitution in the radio electronic complex, based on the diversity of the electronic components, import substitution according to the hardware-oriented principle with emphasis on the creation of a functionally complete and objectively demanded product was recognized as priority. At the same time, the whole market of radio electronic products was conditionally divided into special, professional and consumer radio electronics.
OF LETI AND SVETLANA PJSC
As noted in , "in the modern international competitive environment focused on solving problems in the field of creating electronic components, it is rare to find references to domestic developments that radically changed the market of innovative products in the priority areas that determine the technological independence and security of the state". Among a number of internationally recognized scientific and technological breakthroughs of LETI, it is absolutely necessary to single out the world's first method of growing bulk silicon carbide single crystals (LETI method) (Fig.2) . By allowing to obtain silicon carbide substrates that are suitable for organization of integrated group production of devices, the LETI method has determined the transition to an industrial technology for fabricating electronic components on silicon carbide in the entire world practice.
At the end of 2014, the participants of the conference "Silicon Carbide: Integrating the Scientific, Educational and Industrial Potential of Russia", which was held at LETI and gathered representatives of 34 domestic organizations, noted the lack of a systematic approach to solving the problem of the formation in Russia of modern industrial production of semiconductor silicon carbide and electronic components based on it and the need to create a silicon carbide industry as one of the areas of import substitution to ensure parity in technologies, determines scientific and technological superiority and security of the state.
The concentration of infrastructure resources, knowledge, competencies and personnel potential in the field of silicon carbide electronics from the growth of bulk single crystals to the build-up processes of planar technology, assembly and testing of products has made it possible within the last three years to form within the framework of the strategic partnership of LETI and Svetlana PJSC a complete domestic technological route of manufacturing electronic components on silicon carbide. The import-substituting technological route presented in Fig.3 is oriented to the creation of electronic components with previously unattainable energy-impulse parameters and high-current high-voltage electronics with increased resistance to the influence of extreme factors.
The basic components of the road map for import substitution of carbide-silicon electronics are illustrated in Table 1.
All projects listed in the road map are implemented jointly by the above organizations and the most important condition for their implementation is the organization on the basis of Svetlana PJSC of industrial production of import-substituting products. Special mention should be made of the project "Creation of industrial epitaxial production of silicon carbide multilayer structures for domestic electronic instrumentation", which has been implemented since April 2017 in accordance with RF Government Decree No.218 of 09.04.2010 (phase IX). Epitaxial growth of silicon carbide will be carried out within the framework of a joint scientific and educational laboratory created on the basis of a specialized clean room in Svetlana PJSC. The technology of epitaxial growth of SiC is performed by the employees of LETI on the equipment of the university. Alloyed substrates for power electronics are manufactured by LETI, and semi-insulating substrates for microwave electronics – by Svetlana PJSC. In fact, the implementation of the project will ensure the independence of the Russian Federation in the field of silicon carbide semiconductor materials in the form of epitaxial multilayer structures on single-crystal SiC substrates of its own production.
The first stage of the implementation of the road map for the creation of a silicon carbide electronic components in the framework of the R&D project "Development of technology and mastering the production of a serie of diode switching elements with nanosecond and picosecond switching times and operating voltages of 30...3 000 V" (Apparatus 10) commissioned by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation was successfully completed by the organization of industrial production with the letter "A" of the domestic electronic components of subnanosecond high-voltage electronics, which are intended for solving the problems of ultra-wideband communication, radar and radio-electronic counteraction.
From the end of 2017, the R&D project "Development of serial production of radiation-resistant high-voltage transistors with maximum voltage of 1 700 V and current up to 25 A and diodes based on silicon carbide epitaxial structures for voltage up to 1 700 V and current up to 20 A for harsh operating conditions" (Volt-И13-Т) commissioned by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation is being implemented. This project is aimed at creation of electronic components for domestic high-performance power commuting and transforming modules, designed for high voltages and currents. Currently, employees of LETI have created field-effect transistors with an isolated gate (MOSFET) on silicon carbide . Silicon carbide components have a number of advantages over silicon, including high values of breakdown voltages, low resistance of the active region, low switching losses, high maximum operating temperature and increased radiation resistance.
During 2018–2019 years, it is planned to create on the base of Svetlana PJSC a full technological line for fabricating a silicon carbide components for power high-voltage electronics.
Silicon carbide in the power electronics market occupies the niche of the material for devices that increase the efficiency of energy conversion in harsh conditions and under extreme operating conditions due to the use of high voltages and current density, high-speed switching.
JOINT EXPOSITION OF LETI
AND SVETLANA PJSC
AT INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION CHIPEXPO-2017
The strategic partnership of LETI and Svetlana PJSC, as a result of long-term cooperation in the fields of power pulse and high-frequency electronics, as well as of vacuum and X-ray electronics, was presented at a specialized joint exposition at the XV International electronics exhibition ChipEXPO-2017 (October 31 – November 2, the Expocentre exhibition complex, Moscow).
At the joint exposition of LETI and Svetlana PJSC (Fig.4), named "Strategic partnership", innovative domestic products were presented (Table 2).
In fact, for the first time, innovative developments were demonstrated that were associated not only with the defense industry but also with a socially oriented sphere, including micro- and nanosystems for the medical, biological (laboratory-on-chip) and food (sensor platform with RFID) safety. Special attention should be paid to developments in the field of electromagnetic and information security, as well as to systems for energy recovery from the environment.
Describing future priorities in joint development, vacuum and X-ray electronics should be clearly distinguished, in view of the considerable progress achieved in the creation of highly effective stable field emission cathodes based on the "silicon carbide–nanocrystalline diamond" composition .
The current stage of the solution of the import substitution in the Russian Federation in the sphere of high technologies, which determine the technological independence and security of the state and, in particular, with regard to electronic components for extreme operating conditions, is being implemented within the framework of the strategic partnership of LETI and Svetlana PJSC in the field of organization of the domestic technological route for the manufacture of components based on silicon carbide, a wide-band diamond-like material.
The choice of this area is determined by the following factors:
• priority of innovative developments in this field to ensure technological independence and state security;
• competitive advantages of LETI and Svetlana PJSC both at the national and international levels within the framework of achieved and recognized competencies;
• demand for this science-intensive product and the availability of sustainable financial support from government customers.
An example of solving the import substitution problem in the realization of the production of electronic components on silicon carbide, using the strategic partnership of the innovative higher education institution that is part of the TOP5-100 program among the leading engineering universities of Russia, and of the industrial high-tech enterprise with great traditions, reflects the modern approach to achieving parity and excellence in high-tech areas through to the concentration of knowledge, infrastructure resources and professional elite. ■
Project No. 033.G25.31.02.43 was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 218 of 09.04.2010 (phase IX).