Analysis of System Solutions for Portable Weather Stations
The weather station is a facility for meteorological observations in a place which is chosen to satisfy certain requirements depending on local relief, proximity to buildings and population areas. The weather station includes a platform, where the main instruments for meteorological observations are located. The weather station is provided with a standard for this network equipment, through which observations are made at a fixed time and in a specific sequence . Portable weather stations are regularly used to monitor climatic conditions in an autonomous mode [2–4]. A number of domestic (RU), foreign (EP, US) and international (WO) patents for portable weather stations have been obtained.
SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF PORTABLE WEATHER STATIONS
According to the weather station generalized model it measures the direction and speed of the wind, temperature on the surface of the earth, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, soil moisture, visibility, precipitation, precipitation type, prevailing weather, cloud height, noise level, vibration, air radioactivity, solar radiation, air pollution and weather conditions on the surface, etc.
The device  measures altitude above the sea level, which is calculated by the computer on the basis of a sufficient number of meteorological data provided by temperature, pressure and humidity sensors. Calculated data are displayed on the screen, printer or written to the storage device.
The wireless weather station  measures parameters influencing weather at data collection location for a long time. Weather data can be transmitted to the remote terminal using delayed transmission, which requires significantly less total power than real-time transmission, which is also available. The sensors unit is located at the data collection location and is powered by a solar battery. The microprocessor unit controls the data converters with the necessary sampling frequency and transmission intervals, and creates a single packet , each of the intervals having a predetermined length, depending on the power consumed by the sensor unit and the current battery level. Thus, data transfer to the remote receiving station occurs in real time, but is actually carried out with a delay for the time interval of data transmission. The invention is characterized by low power consumption and the ability to transmit data to a remote terminal.
A portable ecological weather station  for automatic monitoring of the physicochemical and radiation state of atmospheric air has a thermostated case with measuring, processing and transmitting equipment inside, and meteorological sensors. A rain gauge, in the form of a container with a conical neck contacting with the atmosphere and a drain plug, has been introduced. The neck is equipped with an electric heater with a temperature sensor . A differential pressure sensor with temperature compensation is integrated in the vessel.
The weather station  equipment contains a base station, whose microcontroller unit (MСU) processes and transmits meteorological information from sensors to the radio frequency transmitter, and a remote indicator with a radio frequency data receiver from the transmitter, a control unit for the subsequent processing of the wireless signal, and a light indicator. The indicator changes the color of the glow depending on the received weather information.
The ecological information post  of automatic control of the physicochemical and radiation state of atmospheric air is intended for usage in areas of oil and gas fields, metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear industries. The meteorological station contains a sealed enclosure with electronic equipment units placed inside that have cable communication with weather sensors installed outside the package. On the body with a convex lid, the hermetic hollow bracket is fixed with a flange at the end. Inside the case there is an electric heater and a removable frame with electronic equipment and power supplies fixed on it.
The weather station  has MCU for estimating weather information from the atmospheric parameter sensor and an LCD display. The LCD has a multi-layer structure including a front and back glass plates, LCD material between the plates in the form of a pattern having several parts, the most forward transmissive polarizer and a transflective polarizer behind the rear glass plate. Behind the rear polarizer there is a colored substrate that has several areas of different colors and covers the details of the LCD pattern, so that the color areas are selectively displayed through the parts of the pattern, thereby displaying information about the weather in color.
The weather station  creates artificial meteorological phenomena, which allows the user to provide information about the weather. The station includes a weather information module that receives weather information and a weather phenomena modeling module that uses natural objects to generate natural weather patterns that are characteristic of rainy, snowy, windy, sunny, cloudy and foggy weather. Several such weather stations can be placed next to each other to give a visual representation of the weather forecast for several days in one locality.
A portable weather station  has built-in climate sensors for calculating and forecasting local weather conditions, a case with a lock with printing unit including processor and memory module, input keys, and a display. Data from the weather sensor of the ambient conditions at the current location is recorded in the memory module and can be displayed. The station is able to forecast the weather for a given location, taking into account local variations in weather conditions.
Station  has at least one structural element which is set by bearings on the body or stand and can rotate about the vertical axis, which allows the element to orient in the direction of the wind. Also, the station contains an electronic measuring device that generates signal corresponding to the angle value, to which the structural element deviates. This sensor with at least two light guides, each having its own light-emitting element and a common photodetector, forms a set of light guides. Each light guide is used to scan a group of marks that are arranged around an axis of at least one single screen in such a way that a set of scanned marks forms a code that contains information about the value of angle to which the element oriented in the direction of the wind is deflected. Light-emitting elements determine the angular position of the element of the structural element.
Environmental monitoring network  consists of several autonomous posts with sensors for environmental monitoring, video cameras, thermal imagers. Power supply of posts is provided by wind and solar batteries. Wind power plants are mounted in tiers, the pressure of the wind making them rotate towards each other. The revolutions of rotation of the wind power plants are summed through a CVT and transmitted to the generator. In the metal box fixed high on the tower there is battery compartment and electronic data transmission units. Posts are installed on the principle of the cell, at the same distance from each other. And in each cell there are nine base stations interconnected locally and having one head tower. All the information collected from the posts is accumulated in the head tower and then transmitted through cellular communication or through a dedicated channel to the regional services for analyzing the situation and making decisions.
The complex  for measuring the parameters of the environment and the state of ice includes the following components in a single thermostatable enclosure: control units connected to the transceiver device, determining coordinates by the satellite navigation system and the state of the atmosphere of the total ice cover; power supply unit. The telemetry of the state of the onboard systems of the complex is provided.
The irrigation management module  adjusts the irrigation schedule for the connected irrigation controller basing on the meteorological data provided to the local weather station. The module can give additional corrections to the irrigation controller basing on weather conditions and irrigation schedules, in the absence of hardware (e.g. a wireless transmitter, a sufficient amount of memory) and software (e.g. evapotranspiration algorithms) for storing and interpreting meteorological data from the weather station .
TECHNOLOGY OF METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS
Basing on the conducted patent review, generalizations can reveal a modern technology of meteorological measurements, which involves the use of a hardware and software complex for conducting field measurements, telemetry tools for data transfer to a remote terminal and algorithms for processing the data. The following main meteorological parameters are measured: temperature and humidity of the surface layer of the atmosphere, the root layer of the soil, air pressure and solar radiation. Fig. 1 shows the diagram of technology.
The microcontroller unit (MCU) of the measuring complex receives and processes data from sensors and the navigation receiver. Telemetry and location data are transmitted by GSM modem via the Internet to the server or directly to the terminal (smartphone, PC, tablet) in real time. Fig. 2 presents typical meteorological sensors used in most stations.
Most of these sensors are implemented as separate electronic components with a low degree of integration. However, there is an example of a sensor implemented on a chip (in integrated design) — the absolute pressure sensor CEAJ-DA-600K manufactured by “Sensor systems” engineering department of “Nanotechnology Systems and Nanoelectronics” ERC (the chair of the design and production technology electronic devices in the Bauman Moscow State Technical University) [21–23]. The measuring range of this sensor is 0–600kPa. The operating temperature range is –45…+140 °C.
Thus, the main trend of meteorological stations development since the mid-90s coincides with the development trend of telecommunication and computer technologies, which is confirmed by their equipping with modules of interaction with GLONASS/GPS, GSM and Internet networks, as well as using renewable energy sources .
Modern meteorological measurement technology is based on a software and hardware complex that registers data from sensors and transmits them to a remote terminal via a radio channel.
The majority of weather stations monitor the following parameters:
air temperature and humidity;
soil temperature and moisture;
wind speed and wind direction;
all sort of precipitation;
The most effective in terms of functional, mass and size indicators and energy consumption are the implementations considered in [15–17, 19].
The work has been carried out with partial financial support under the Agreement No. 2.4176.2017/P.Ch.
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