More than 50 representatives of leading scientific and educational centers of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan took part in the seminar, including the Institute of Laser Physics of the SB RAS, the Sternberg Astronomical Institute of MSU, Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the RAS, the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, State Institute of Applied Optics and a number of others, including 19 doctors of science and 8 PhDs.
Mr. Pavlov, you have presented the concept of an innovative project to create a compact laser-interferometric complex. What can its implementation provide for Russian science and the country as a whole?
In the future, the study of physical gravity and the use of obtained scientific and technical results will become the leading area in the world fundamental and applied sciences, which is predetermined by the all-encompassing physical nature of gravity, which permeates the entire universe, forms and provides interaction of animate and inanimate nature.
The innovative project "Creation of a compact laser-interferometric complex (CLIC) based on the principle of gravitationally induced frequency shift " proposed by the Gravity Physics TCT allows fundamental research in various areas of gravitational physics, the use of developed methods for specific process solutions and their conversion in the interests of other industries. In particular, the complex can be used to investigate spatial and temporal variations of the gravitational field, to detect gravity waves, to test the foundations of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity, and to create new-generation gravimetric devices for tasks that previously could not be solved or were extremely difficult.
Technologies implemented on the basis of CLIC will allow solving the following fundamental and applied problems:
• to measure horizontal derivatives of the gravitational potential, as well as higher derivatives (horizontal and vertical) of the gravitational potential of space objects, their temporal and spatial variations;
• to carry out a gravimetric assessment of natural resources on the basis of information on the gravitational potential and its derivatives, which will allow us to assess the density and dynamics of underlying rocks on the surface of the Earth and other planets;
• to create spatial maps of the gravitational potential of celestial objects and outer space for space navigation purposes and to obtain additional information on the position of objects;
• to monitor the state of the lithosphere, which will allow us to assess the probability of catastrophic energy releases;
• to create a special standard in metrology and a verification circuit for measuring the relative permittivity of liquid, solid and gaseous dielectrics in the frequency range above 10 GHz, which is not yet provided with state verification schemes;
• to carry out registration of high- and low-frequency high-amplitude gravitational waves in gravitational astronomy, to study the possible anisotropy of space-time.
The theoretical and experimental work done will create the basis for creating a detector that will detect a violation of the Einstein equivalence principle.
In addition, as vice-president of the Nanotechnological Society of Russia, I would like to draw your attention to the fact that this complex can be used to monitor the position of objects when positioning nanostructures and nano-elements in the process of their assembly and manufacturing, to diagnose nanostructural changes in new generation materials, to conduct scientific research in the field of physics of materials and nanotechnologies.
Taking into account the importance of the problems, the program of the seminar included reports and discussions on the experimental verification of the theory of gravitation, the latest achievements in gravitational and laser physics, as well as in related fields of theoretical and mathematical physics. Materials of the seminar are fully presented in printed publications and their Internet versions.
From the concept it is clear that the innovative project is based on laser technology. What is their essence and what results can they achieve?
Indeed, CLIC is based on laser technologies created within the framework of the Dulkyn project, including a detector consisting of independent compact laser systems that are built within the same concept, but in different versions with a three- or pentagonal configuration of resonators, with generation of standing or traveling waves. Each antenna is a two-resonator (with nonequivalent resonator geometry) laser system (TLS) with common mirrors fixed on a single base and an active medium that ensures the generation of optical radiation in resonators with mutually orthogonal linear polarizations.
The combination of all technologies, including laser, allowed the creation of the first level detector Dulkyn-1, with the help of which for the first time in Russia a multi-month experiment Lunar test was carried out that made it possible to achieve a sensitivity of 10-12–8 ∙ 10-16 in the frequency range 10-5–1 Hz. Prior to the launch of the international space project eLISA (Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), it is the only detector in the world for this range of infra-low frequencies.
The Lunar test made it possible to test the Einstein equivalence principle with respect to the universality of the law of gravitational redshift for watches of different physical nature at 0.9%, which almost doubled the previous world achievement (1.7%, USA, 1983). The experiment confirmed the correctness of the concept of constructing the Dulkyn detector and the use of the G.Maugin’s approach, which corresponds to the value of the phenomenological parameter ξ = 1, for the elastodynamic response calculation, in contrast to J.Weber’s alternative approach (ξ = 0), since the experimental value obtained by testing the principle equivalence was ξ = 1 ± 0,009.
The most important scientific and technological problem solved in the CLIC project is an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio. Today, the main way to improve this feature is the accumulation of signals over a long time interval, which creates problems associated with receiving real-time gravitational signals. An effective way to combat flicker noise in gravitational laser detectors is to use modulation methods for receiving low-frequency signals. In this case, the useful low-frequency signal is transferred to a frequency that is much higher than the highest frequency of the information signal. Also, to solve the problem of flicker noise in gravitational laser detectors, we will use the method of converting single-frequency laser radiation into a two-frequency one (the Ilyin-Morozov method).
Presented reports reflect the scientific and practical work carried out in Kazan. Partners in other regions of Russia will participate in the creation of CLIC?
One of the main objectives of the seminar is to attract colleagues from other domestic and foreign research centers to cooperate in the creation of CLIC. Today we are working in an orderly manner to work with Russian and foreign potential partners.
As for Kazan, the history of experimental gravitational research in the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan is more than 40 years old. The founder of the Kazan gravitational school, Aleksey Z.Petrov, was engaged in questions of experimental substantiation and confirmation of the general theory of relativity, organized an experimental laboratory at the Department of Theory of Relativity and Gravitation, and later, during his activity at the Institute of Theoretical Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, he directed together with prof. V.Braginsky (Moscow State University) experiments on the detection of gravitational radiation. At the insistence of A.Petrov during the construction of the building, the basement was equipped with a special platform for conducting experiments on gravity. Later on, based on the new concept proposed by physicists from Kazan, the Dulkyn project was developed, which was supported by the government of the Republic of Tatarstan. In 1991, it acquired an official status and was carried out under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan.
The theoretical basis of the experimental work of the scientific team was laid by the graduate of the Department of Theoretical Physics, A.Skochilov, employees of the Department of Theory of Relativity of Kazan University, A.Balakin and R.Daishev. Active participation in the Dulkyn project, was accepted by the head of the department of the theory of relativity and gravitation of Kazan University, professor V.Kaigorodov. Also it should be noted the participation in the development of laser technologies of G.Ilyin and V.Voronov from the KNRTU-KAI. The scientific school created in KAI allows to carry out profound research in the field of quantum physics and to create modern measuring equipment for research in the field of gravitational physics.
The most important for carrying out experimental work on the Dulkyn project was the creation in NGO GIPO by decision of the General Director V.Ivanov of the Joint Experimental Laboratory of Gravitational-Optical Measurements. The presence of specialized cabs with thermal and vibration stabilization at a depth of 12 m from the ground surface and high-tech laser-interferometric equipment made it possible to carry out precise experimental studies in the field of gravitational physics.
Head of laboratory A.Skochilov, a group of specialists including S.Mavrin, Yu.Chugunov, A.Agachev, O.Shinyaev, as well as employees of the KAI G.Ilyin and V.Voronov designed, manufactured and for the first time in Russia conducted a unique experiment to test the principle of equivalence on watches of different physical nature.
Unique scientific and experimental results were obtained within the framework of the Dulkyn project thanks to the support of the first president of the Republic of Tatarstan, M.Shaimiev and acting president R.Minnikhanov, which made it possible to get 17.4 million rubles from the republic's budget.
How much will the creation of the CLIC cost and what are the terms of the project?
The main stages of the work The main stages of the work were presented and discussed at the seminar, and were generally approved by its participants. According to preliminary estimates, the total budget of the project until 2020 will be from 130 to 150 million rubles.
For any project, it is important to see its long-term development perspective. Therefore, we have worked out the concept of a strategic innovation project "Creation of a multifunctional complex on the principles of gravitational physics for space research", with a projected budget of about 290 billion rubles and with a deadline of execution until 2025 in which the innovative project for the creation of CLIC is included as the first stage.
What is the most important thing today in the work on the implementation of the innovative project?
The main thing today, and always – is a well-coordinated, creative work of all participants, so that their competencies are integrated into an effective system of developing and promoting an innovative project from the idea to its implementation, modernization and utilization. The system of management of the full life cycle of the innovative project SMFLIP (System of Manage Full Lifecycle Innovational Project), developed by me and tested on projects of the real sector of the economy, is realized on the basis of the digital economy, includes training and covers all the main stages of development and implementation of high-tech innovations:
• generating ideas based on the achievements of fundamental science and modern technologies in the interests of existing and foreseeable needs;
• selection and analysis of ideas received for consideration together with all participants of the innovation process;
• development of the concept of innovation and its verification;
• development of marketing strategy, market research and selection of a promising market segment for innovations;
• drawing up a feasibility study on the basis of the technical part of the innovation proposal;
• determination of the volume of costs of all types of resources, the number of employees, the timing of work performance and the economic efficiency of the innovation project;
• development of design and project documentation;
• support for the transfer of the project in the investment phase and in pilot operation;
• maintenance at the stage of industrial operation, modernization and utilization of the project;
• organization of financing at all stages of the full life cycle of the innovation project;
• interaction with public authorities at all levels to improve legislation in order to improve the management of innovation economy.
In conclusion, I want to note that VTK "Physical Gravitation" was held as a project office, which is capable of initiating creative work in the priority direction of modern science and even with its own resources, and together with our partners, it is a catalyst for the implementation of projects in the field of physical gravity.
I want to emphasize that the presented innovative project is aimed at creating a new direction of scientific research activity, including the development of super sensitive high-precision laser-interferometric apparatus for conducting experiments in the theory of gravity. However, in addition to recognizing the importance of the fundamental component in experimental search works in the field of gravitational physics, it is necessary to discuss the applied aspects and the ways of their implementation.
The presented messages are all the more interesting because now atomic gravimeters are developing which are based on the interference of atoms and noticeably benefit in their capabilities. At the same time, the proposed ideas should, of course, be worked out experimentally.
The navigation component of the project is interesting, since it is important to have a map of the Earth's gravitational field. On the Moon and Mars there is no GLONASS, and for them, too, it is necessary to create maps of the gravitational field.
Now the project of creation in Russia of a new generation of the laser detector of gravitational waves, which by its sensitivity will exceed the system LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) is being discussed. It is possible that this project will be implemented in cooperation with the Italians. The creation of such a system in Russia will allow us to make a very big step forward, taking into account the geophysical and astrophysical components.
In recent years, activity in the Republic of Tatarstan has been high – we hold international conferences, symposia of the highest level here with guests from Europe and Asia. This trend is very important and should be maintained. I wish good work to Gravity Physics TCT on the implementation of the presented innovative project.
This seminar has two tasks: the first is to discuss specific issues related to the theory of gravitation, gravitational, laser, and mathematical physics; the second is the evaluation of the results of the activities of Gravity Physics TCT on the creation of CLIC. It is pertinent to recall the history of the Dulkyn center, when in the most difficult years, the period of lack of money our republic still found the funds and helped this project. Therefore, when we again appeal to the leadership of the Republic of Tatarstan, we can recall the advisability of supporting this direction. I want to emphasize that the project was born from fundamental science and the record accuracy of the method makes it in demand in the real sector of the economy, in the devices that are being created.
Creation of CLIC will allow to carry out fundamental studies of spatial and temporal variations of the gravitational field, testing the basic principles of the theory of relativity, testing the principle of local spatial invariance using quantum non-destructive measurements in a laser-interferometric complex, and investigating the possibility of detecting low-frequency gravitational radiation. The technologies developed within the framework of the innovative project will make it possible to solve topical applied problems for the creation of a gravimetric precision map of near-Earth and outer space, monitoring of the geological environment, the organization of a constant tracking of the variation of the gravitational potential at any point of the earth’s surface (including inside wells), gravimetric evaluation of natural resources, the creation of gravity networks, space and ground navigation based on precision measurements of gravity fields first, control the position of objects in nanolithography and nanostructures nanoelements positioning in the process of assembling and manufacturing.
I consider it expedient to present an innovative project for obtaining funding from the Russian Academy of Sciences and Roscosmos State Corporation and to ask federal and regional authorities, state research and production corporations and commercial structures to assist in financing, and also participate in its implementation and promotion.
This project was not accidentally created on the basis of NGO GIPO, because one of the important areas of our work for many decades were laser interferometers and related applications. On the other hand, for navigation, there are three physical fields: our sky, the electromagnetic field and gravity, which can not be hammered or drowned. In 1976 GIPO was defined as the head organization for metrology in astrocorrection and astronavigation, and navigation has always been one of our main directions.
At the first stage of the previous project, there were good, but unstructured goals, and the final goal seemed to be clouded. The work of Gravity Physics TCT led to the fact that the results of previous studies were structured and it became clear where we are and where to go. Mr. Pavlov applied modern methods of project management, and it was nice to see a phased work plan, which indicated the practical application of the results and proposed the construction of a gravimetric network, and this is a serious challenge. In order to reduce costs, you can offer to integrate the system with the existing network of satellite monitoring stations.
The cost of implementing the proposed program of fundamental research in the field of defense capability is 60–90 billion rubles. Does this figure frighten? Let me remind you that for the rehabilitation of only four banks in one year, about three trillion rubles was spent. The requested funds are the money of a small concern, and they are in the country. It is necessary to correctly link the project with the needs of the country and, most importantly, justify the practical application. Today, such expensive studies, as a rule, are implemented by international consortia.
Since the project under discussion has real contours - even a distant perspective is outlined, it can be brought to discussion at all levels.
The theme of the project is of great interest from both the fundamental and applied points of view. And if it is possible to create a consortium of organizations and unite their efforts to solve the tasks listed today and create devices to measure the various gravitational effects, it will be great. The Kazan Institute of Physics and Technology will enthusiastically take part in this in terms of using nonclassical states of light to improve the accuracy of measurements.
I want to say about what in my opinion was not enough in the presentation of the project, and that would interest me if I decided on the issue of allocating money. There was a Dulkyn-1 project, and we thoroughly acquainted with its results. Now it is planned to create CLIC for three years - a compact device that can be placed on satellites and which should have a higher sensitivity in comparison with the previous setting. Moreover, it is assumed that the data on the new device will not be copied for years, that is, measurements will be performed at shorter intervals. Thus, in comparison with the previous complex, it is planned a grandiose advance forward in several directions at once. At the heart of such a project should be some kind of breakthrough idea, or a set of technical solutions. But nothing was said about this today in the reports. If you create a device in three years, then now an idea should be indicated, preferably published in a good journal, which underlies the new scheme. Since the project will be evaluated by experts, it is necessary to formulate specifically what has been done since previous experiments, what ideas have appeared, and if they promise such a breakthrough in measuring equipment, then they must definitely be published. I think that without this it will be difficult to get support.
I met the participants of the innovative project CLIC 20 years ago at a conference devoted to the problems of gravity research. In order to create a measurement tool, we need mathematics, and when we get to the experiment, statistical processing of the data appears. As an interested person I want to emphasize that we will try our best to solve the problem of metrological support of the project.
Kazan has very rich traditions of gravity research. In the 1960s, Aleksey Z.Petrov, in accordance with the economic contract with the Kuibyshev Economic Council, solved the problem of detecting gravitational waves. And when the physics department was being built, at the request of Alexei Petrov, who was striving to expand these studies, a special site under the building was cemented to accommodate instruments for gravity research. Then came Dulkyn. Today, several people talked about enthusiasts. I agree, real enthusiasts really work here, and the emergence of the project would have been impossible without the remarkable inventor Zufar G.Murzakhanov, who made great efforts to create this team. Unfortunately, there was a period when the work was interrupted. As for the new project, there can be no two opinions: he undoubtedly deserves support!
I want to note that the innovative project is represented by a strong team, which has done colossal work in unfavorable conditions. We need to give serious support to the solutions of the seminar, related to practical work. Maybe this is extremely bold, but I hope you will agree that this project opens the prospect of creating new technologies for exploring the universe from a big bang to our time. ■