Micro- and nanosystems industry: from import substitution to technological sovereignty
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL BASIS OF SIXTH TECHNO-ECONOMIC PARADIGM. MICRO-
It should be noted that the driving forces that determine the dynamics of the formation and development of the new technological order are not only economic incentives, but also a number of basic factors that are closely related to such concepts as national and technological security, superiority and parity. Their provision within the framework of state interests, along with the commercialization of products, makes a significant contribution to the evolution of the backbone technologies that determine the appearance of the new techno-economic paradigm (Table 1) . Lacking a sufficient body of knowledge necessary for the analysis of the whole complex of technologies that determine the formation of the sixth techno-economic paradigm, let us turn only to the areas of micro- and nano-engineering.
As part of the analysis of the basic trends in the development of the natural scientific basis of the sixth technological order, it should be noted that the main system strategic areas is likely to be the active use of previously unknown properties of materials and compositions arising from the transition to the following types of objects:
whose properties depend on size and conformational factors;
representing the integration of artificially and naturally ordered systems;
integrating materials science base of inorganic and organic nature;
functioning of which is based on a complex of cooperative synergistic processes and phenomena.
When solving problems of creation and practical use of objects with the above properties, it is necessary to determine the possible priority areas of fundamental research to ensure the intellectual basis of innovation of the sixth technological structure:
dependence of the properties of materials and systems on the characteristic dimensions;
unconventional types of symmetry and conformation with a dynamically tunable structure;
transfer of energy, charge and information based on cooperative synergistic processes;
molecular recognition as a basis of selectivity of processes;
processes of self-formation, self-ordering and self-organization;
convergent systems – the integration of man-made artificial inorganic systems and objects of bioorganic nature.
The product model of micro- and nanotechnology of the sixth techno-economic paradigm will be determined by the following main areas of applied research:
distributed self-organizing reflexive information networks;
multifunctional adaptive man-machine interface;
artificial organs and non-pharmacological correction of the state of biological objects;
robotic replacement systems;
bionic, including cognitive, algorithms and principles of operation.
The practice of technology assessment should include a new terminological basis, which determines their tactical and strategic importance (critical technologies, superior technologies, unforeseen technologies) and functional-subject orientation (multidisciplinary, nature-like, bionic, cognitive, bio-information, convergent, cyber-physical). Thus, the development of the so-called nature-like convergent technologies determines a deeper knowledge and, of course, the use of the capabilities of the material world at the micro and especially nanoscale levels, when the original identity of an atom or molecule to an object of organic or inorganic nature actually becomes indifferent. This creates a prerequisite for the synthesis of artificial, previously unknown in nature, systems not only in composition and (or) structure, but, first of all, in properties and, therefore, functionality. Such systems must be characterized by the special nature of the processes of energy transfer, charge and conformational changes, characterized by low energy consumption, high speed and bearing signs of a cooperative synergistic process.
The requirements for the future functional environments that are the basis of the technological breakthrough in the field of electronic components of new generations include extra-large information capacity, high specific energy content, selectivity to external influences, associativity and distribution of information processing. They can also combine the processes of functioning and self-renewing synthesis.
Describing the prospects for the development of micro- and nanosystems in relation to the techno- and bio-technosphere, three of the most progressive dynamically developing technological areas should certainly be singled out:
energy supplying recovery technologies.
Thus, the objective functions within the framework of the formation of the VI techno-economic paradigm at the moment can be defined as the achievement of a new quality of life in the conditions of the digital transformation of society with ensuring sociability, cyber and biosafety, and new generation of human capital.
RUSSIAN TECHNOLOGY FIELD
OF MICRO AND NANOTECHNOLOGY
IN CONTEXT OF GLOBAL COMPETITION
The general situation characterizing the composition of the modern technosphere within the framework of the development of the industry demanded by the market can be determined within the framework of the following commercial and technological approaches:
breakthrough technologies (intellectual excellence);
borrowing technologies (acquired, "stolen" technologies);
optimization technologies (improvements);
cooperation technologies (alliance technologies).
The development and implementation of all these types requires investment. The strategy of technological sovereignty, security and competitiveness determines the need for a differentiated approach and taking into account a combination of factors:
availability of scientific and technological groundworks;
affiliation to the basic system-forming technologies of various sectoral technological platforms;
universality and demand for technology by departmental organizations that determine the national, military and technospheric security of the state;
belonging to the basic technologies with a long horizon of commercial implementation;
availability of dynamic implementation of own competitive solutions with the formation of domestic technological niches;
classifying technologies as especially sensitive, under sanctions, excluding the possibility of their borrowing;
need for and availability of advanced foreign technologies;
serialization of production based on the technology being developed;
competitiveness of products based on the technology being developed;
export potential of products based on the technology being developed.
The creation and adaptation of the basic elements of the electronic industry are harmonized within the framework of the technological independence strategy according to the criteria of economic efficiency, production efficiency, breadth of the nomenclature and demand of serialization, as well as of import substitution and import independence. It is advisable to structure the infrastructure technological basis, based on the totality of the previously listed functions that it should perform:
backbone infrastructure serial production;
flexible adaptive lines of small-scale multi-product manufacturing;
technological centers for collective use of contract manufacturing;
technological centers for collective use of expensive and unique equipment;
unique cooperative clusters of technological breakthroughs and superiority.
As part of the analysis of key technologies that determine technological independence, the following basic technologies that can be traced in their evolution can be identified:
printed (flexible, conformal);
2D and 3D integration (assembly);
heterogeneous multifunctional integration (optoelectronic, microwave photonic);
multidisciplinary integration (cyber-physical, bionic).
As a response to global challenges and threats, taking into account technological independence in creating electronic components, system technological priorities can be defined (Table 2).
The modern stage is characterized by rapid purposeful development of nature-like and transdisciplinary technologies , which determine the harmonious combination of artificial and natural intelligence in such areas as:
quality of human life – biotechnosfera (technologies of personalized and prognostic medicine);
human efficiency in the "digital world" – information technology (human-machine interface, interpersonal skills and cyber security);
human resources – energy technology (clean resource-saving energy, energy recovery from the ether and the environment).
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS FOR SIXTH TECHNO-ECONOMIC PARADIGM
The demand for electronic components will be determined on the basis of the characteristics of the market, focused on the military-industrial complex and, of course, on the development of socially-oriented civilian technologies. The most widely used in world practice classification of electronic components, which allows to determine its functional purpose, should be considered the following:
MEMS, including sensorics.
For additional refinements, the following concepts are widely used: nanoelectronics, plasma electronics, vacuum electronics, magnetoelectronics, photovoltaics, quantum electronics, organic electronics, bioelectronics, and others.
An extremely important alternative and a certain addition to electronics in terms of generating and processing signals, transmitting energy and information is photonics. The roadmap "Development of Optoelectronic Technologies (Photonics)" was approved by the Order of the Government of the Russian Federation. Photonics is defined as the field of science and technology associated with the generation and propagation of photon fluxes, their control and the use of their interaction with matter. Photonics devices are devices and systems for which the basic process is the transfer of energy or information by the flow of photons. In fact, apart from a variety of terms used in the framework of the modern terminology of photonics (iconics, coherent optics, quantum optics, nanophotonics, quantum electronics, optical computing, optical engineering, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, microwave photonics, photoelectronics, integrated optics, wave optics laser technology) and determine its functional purpose, it is conditionally possible to identify a number of significant industrial areas (Table 3).
These technologies of photonics have wide military and civilian markets, however, from the perspective of a promising electronic components, special attention is now being paid to two areas: information and microwave photonics. The fundamental differences between an electron and a photon as carriers of energy and information, as well as the transition from galvanic coupling systems to optical links, are primarily manifested in speed, broadband, noise immunity, information capacity. The limitations that must be overcome in the development of these technologies are also well known. For microwave photonics, it is a reversible hardware micro-nano interface, electronics-optics, and for information photonics it is an adaptation of the classical materials science basis and micro-, nano- and optoelectronics technology to solve problems of creating optical computer platforms.
A special place is occupied by the technology of creating electronic components for super-extreme operating conditions: aerospace, technogenically hazardous facilities, including nuclear energy, chemical production, power grids and vehicles with a high level of electric and magnetic fields, pulsed power-generating and energy-transforming systems. Success in this area is ensured primarily by the material science base and developer competencies. The necessary extreme parameters cannot be achieved on poor quality materials. Maintaining the technological potential that ensures the independence and security of the state in the face of real, practically indefinite sanctions should be considered as a priority task with the achievement of full sovereignty and import independence. When evaluating the effectiveness of products, intellectual and innovative potentials, and importance in solving the tasks of security of the state, individual and society, dominate as criteria for consumer qualities.
Describing the development of electronic components for the socially-oriented sphere, we note that the so-called cyber-physical technologies, the Internet of things, will certainly be developed within the framework of the sixth techno-economic paradigm. In the modern sense, this is the "Internet of people", including biomedical personalized prognostic medicine technologies : home diagnostics and non-pharmacological correction of the physiological state, smart clothes, smart skin, sensor-corrective bioimplants. The demand for a new quality of life and longevity requires an economically accessible friendly "human – sensory-information and corrective biotechnical environment" interface. Personalized biomedical monitoring available for a wide range of patients predetermined the development of a large-scale sensor and label industry with extensive use of printing technologies  in conjunction with advanced packaging, including hybrid systems. Along with the low cost of production, flexible printed electronics and photonics provide conformal integration into bio-objects and implementation of the exchange using the "Internet of things". In fact, human life should be the primary object of technological revolution, and personalized biomedical express monitoring can be considered as an adapted cyber-physical technology.
INVESTMENTS IN HUMAN CAPITAL
The most important element in achieving technological independence is a change in the paradigm of staffing technology, that is, investment in the human capital. The current state of high-tech staffing is characterized by the following features:
a general decrease in the natural-science educational level of school graduates, their lack of professional orientation and a low level of motivation;
lag in the educational environment of most universities and, as a result, in the professional and competence level of graduates from the real needs of the economy;
in fact, the loss of industry and the lack of corporate and industrial-market-adapted science;
weak use by industrial partners of human resources, as well as laboratory and experimental base of organizations of the Russian Academy of Sciences and universities for carrying out applied research and technology transfer;
lack of coordination of program-target planning in the implementation of sectoral programs with public investment in science and education in the form of projects and grants;
lack of databases of critical and demanded sectoral technologies;
lack of motivational mechanisms for industrial enterprises that ensure the "transformation" of scientific departments of universities and the RAS into industry laboratories for the transfer of technology and personnel potential.
In the framework of grants and projects implemented by the state, not always adequate evaluation criteria are used as basic indicators, which do not reflect the needs of the real economy and in particular of the industrial sphere. A new educational paradigm of vocational education should include a number of concrete actions that are harmoniously perceived by industry and the scientific and educational environment:
creation of the atlas of new sought-after professions, including the so-called "over-the-horizon";
determination of the state order for the list of specialists, training areas and profiles;
optimization (selection) of professional standards and their harmonization with educational ones;
formulation of requirements for qualification and its independent assessment;
development of conception of individual competency profiles that is personalized trajectories in the labor market;
analysis of the need for competencies of the "digital engineer" for various fields of activity (scientific, industrial, communication, information, business-commodity).
Without the above activities, it is impossible to form an effective modern educational paradigm that takes into account professional orientation. This is recited by the Ministry of Labor, the Fund for Infrastructure and Educational Programs of RUSNANO and other organizations operating in the national system of staffing and qualifications.
Ensuring global competitiveness in the field of breakthrough technologies, innovative products and the implementation of the tasks of technological independence determine the need, firstly, of a sharp increase in the importance of the intellectual component of the human capital (innovations should be motivated), secondly, the balance of funding when creating new production facilities, as well as technology and personnel of scientific and educational clusters engaged in the transfer of knowledge (commensurate investments in material and intellectual products).
The basic goal in achieving technological independence in the framework of high-tech domestic micro- and nanotechnologies is the formation of a new industrial environment and a mechanism of industrial, scientific and educational partnership focused on the convergence of science and technology for the implementation of interdisciplinary research and development, development of personalized vocational education and provision interdisciplinary scientific and engineering activity in the market of high-tech products of a new techno-economic paradigm.
The following tasks are solved:
implementation of fundamental and exploratory research that determines the technology of excellence with a long-term scientific and technological horizon of implementation and socio-economic efficiency;
carrying out applied research with the selection, systematization and accumulation of knowledge in interdisciplinary areas, the formation of competitive technological niches with a dynamic, rapid transformation of knowledge from the research stage to the production stage;
provision of modern vocational-oriented educational services for the formation of a new generation of professional elite as the basis for ensuring the competitiveness of domestic products and technological sovereignty.
The priority areas requiring the concentration of intellectual, infrastructural and financial resources that determine the possibility of implementing scientific and technological breakthroughs, long-term industrial and technological development horizons in demand by the state and society should determine the system support of technological sovereignty in the aggregate areas of micro- and nanotechnology creation:
conformal personalized bio-technosphere (prognostic and personalized medicine technologies, food and pharmacological safety);
harmonized secure information technology sphere (neuromorphic computer platforms, Internet of things, cybersecurity);
efficient resource-consuming energy technology (energy recovery from the ether and the environment).
The ultimate goal is harmonized with the task of developing civilian high-tech products on the basis of enterprises of the military-industrial complex and can be defined as the generation and transfer of knowledge and technology to the knowledge-intensive innovation sphere to provide a personified, comfortable, safe, economically efficient human environment.
The following threats and risks can be noted at the stage of transition of the Russian Federation to the sixth techno-economic paradigm and ensuring technological sovereignty:
stagnation of innovative technologies (low efficiency of economic investments);
decrease in the quality of human capital (general decrease in educational level and motivation);
borrowing the basic hardware and software of the information infrastructure (threats of information dependence and terrorism);
artificially accelerating technical evolution without evaluating the "danger" of the materials created and technological processes (economic incentives for technologies that have not undergone "evolutionary selection"). ■