Standardized manufacture of III-N heterostructures for solid-state microwave electronics The unique capabilities of wide-band semiconductor III - nitrides for creation of powerful receive/transmit UHF units, as well as the possibility of overcoming the main problems that arise in developing the technology of instrument nitride heterostructures are shown. Creation of specialized growth equipment and the use of an innovative heterostructures design and modes of their growth have brought about world-class results, and have enhanced the prospects for further improvement.
Biological safety boxes The main types of biological safety boxes (BSB) used in microbiological industry, medical and research laboratories are described. Major conceptions on biological safety and general information on types of these boxes, recommendations on their installation, certification and exploitation are given.
Alkali electrolysis as an alternative to that based on ion-exchange membranes Basically, electricity-aided production hydrogen and oxygen from water requires, a container, electrical current and a separator for accumulation of the gases. To increase efficacy of the process, electrolyte is added into water. The article compares the two main methods of water electrolysis: alkali and ion-exchange ones. The main difference consists in how the electrolyte is used. In alkali systems the electrolyte is added into water. In ion-exchange systems the electrolyte is the separator. The rest of equipment is the same in both systems.
Nano-diamond-graphite emitters for integrated field emission micro-devices Formation of nanostructured field diamond-graphite emitters for integrated field-emission microdevices has been studied and their properties investigated. The effect of self-organization of diamond nanocrystallites in carbon and polymer-like hydrocarbon films at their deposition in non-equilibrium low- pressure ethanol MW plasma has been discovered. Modes of separate deposition of carbon structures of preset allotropic modifications, as well as of structures containing diamond and graphite phases in different volume ratios have been determined. Integrated field emission microdevices: diodes and triodes with nanodiamond-graphite emitters have been fabricated. The formed nanodiamond-graphite emitters at 1 x 10–6 Torr demonstrate the current density up to 2,0 A/cm². Applied voltage and field-emission strength to 1.5 V/µm.
Obtaining boron-silicon-containing nanoparticles One of the areas of nanotechnology is development of methods for manufacture of nanomaterials and nanoparticles possessing qualitatively new functional properties, including boron-containing compounds and nanostructures used in medicine for diseases diagnostics and treatment. A promising field here is using boron-containing nanoparticles for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer. A method of laser-induced pyrolysis of the reaction gas mixture for obtaining boron-silicon-containing nanoparticles with a high content of boron is offered.
Formation of nanosized graphene structures by focused ion beam After stability of the 2D atomic carbon form – graphene has experimentally proved, this material has been extensively investigated with the aim to use it for different technical applications. Due its unique properties graphene is considered to be one of potential materials for future electronics. However, creation of real applications on its base requires reproducible methods for production of graphene sheets with controlled parameters. Methods for formation of multigraphene nanostructures using ion-beam technologies have been developed. The results show that thinning of structures to some graphene layers and formation of quasi one-dimensional narrowing are possible.
Management of medical and biologic characteristics of bioactive systems By altering nanostructures characteristics (relief, shape of relief, composition, structure, etc.), it is possible to provide the materials with fundamentally new properties that are radically different from properties of the bulk materials. The work considers the possibility of creation of nanocomposite (NC) materials on polymers surface by means of uniting two nanomaterials – the nanostructured polymer surface and nanoscaled carbon film. For additional possibility to manage the surface properties pharmacoforous nanomaterial, heterocycled derivatives of fullerene C60, is used.
A portable analyzer based on cantilever microarray for quick diagnostics prostate cancer The prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the most sensitive and specific among all cancer-specific markers. The PSA is the only useful and meaningful marker for early detection and diagnostics of prostate cancer. For the time being there are no devices which can be used for the quick detection of PSA outside the laboratory. The aim of the project is to develop a portable cantilever label-freer biochips providing a single-stage detection of PSA.
“Cloud” Platform for Nanotechnology Research and Development This article considers premises of creation of a “cloud” platform for nanotechnology research and development and the main engineering prototypes. The platform is presented in terms of socio-economic, technological and informational aspects, the architecture and mechanisms of implementation of the system components are described. The work resulted in creation of the submitted web-source «nanoModel.ru» intended for virtual labs and university distant learning courses in the field of nanotechnology.
Selective Modification of Materials by a Non-Destructive High-Energy Photon Flow A substance’s structure has been investigated at non-destructive spatial - selective impact of short-wave radiation. Possibility of formation in materials of latent stable identifiers which can be made with a thin periodic structure, also on base of nanotechnologies has been demonstrated. This approach in combination with read-out latent and multilevel information creates preconditions for development of a new method for identification and protection against falsification of various products and documents.
A new method of topographic Raman image formation A new combination of the system of confocal Raman image and optical profilometer gives an opportunity to obtain confocal images of chemical substances distribution on the surface of large samples. Addition of the new method to the well-known combination of Raman and atomic force microscopy provides great advantages.
Electronics for nanotechnology The electronic systems to be used in nanotechnology should be able to process large flows of experimental data and to control complex equipment. For instance, realization of all of the potential of the scanning probe microscopy apparatuses requires use a system able to register and analyze an enormous amount of information at extremely high speed in such a way that the accuracy of the measurements does not suffer.
Network interaction of SEC "Nanotechnology" of Russian institutes of higher education Nanoindustry is an integrated complex, which includes equipment, materials, software, knowledge systems, technological, metrological, information, organization and economic culture and personnel providing production of science-intensive products with non-traditional properties of materials and systems at transition to a nanoscale. The "National Nanotechnological Network"should become an important element of this complex. It has already served as a framework for a rather powerful educational area with scientific and educational centers (SEC) "Nanotechnologies" of Russian institutes of higher education.
Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis: watching nanoparticles` life With Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) the thermal Brownian motion, the hidden motive power of nanosystems, could be revealed in all its fleeting beauty. NTA is a rare case of technique both visual and powerful. Nanoparticle sizing, measurements of concentration and zeta-potential, fluorescent particles studies are for adult scientists, and a fascinating travel to nanoworld for the young and inquiring researchers are readily available.
Prospects of nanoindustry development in Russia The «High Technologies of XXI century» Forum chaired by V. Bykov, President of the NSR, incorporated a meeting devoted to prospects of the nanoindustry development. Development of the education system in the field of nanotechnologies and nanoindustry for nuclear energy got detailed considaration in the course of the meeting.
One of the major laws of invention To solve different technical problems one often has to choose between available knowledge and novel approaches. It is not necessary to invent everything by oneself. It is important to be able to use previous achievements. The article considers how three ocean yachts "Laguna", "Wind of change"and "Wind`s daughter" used to make unique voyages, here built. It was accomplished also due to the invention talent of the co-author of this article.
International approach to nanoterminology The terminology has a key significance in creation of a unified approach to understanding of the essense and development of nanotechnology. Harmonization of the conceptual apparatus with international approaches will undoubtedly facilitate integration of Russian science into the global scientific and technological space.