Fig.1 presents the two-headed eagle and the inscription "YICC" – abbreviated name of Nanotechnologies youth innovation creativity center, which is successfully developed in close cooperation of Lomonosov Moscow State University and Advanced Technologies Center. The history of establishment and development of the YICC can be traced to publications [1-4].
For a short time YICC made two, in our opinion, significant achievements in the field of technological development. First, was independently developed the original design of 3D printer, and secondly, we have started production of digital machining centers – mill, turn/mill, and engraving machines. The technology has been successfully tested in the manufacture of unique parts made of plastics, wood and other materials. Digital machining centers immediately found a strong demand in the modern woodworking, as they significantly reduce the time from the idea to the product.
Nano as a basis
What helped to achieve rapid success in these areas? First of all, it’s 30 years’ experience in the field of scanning probe microscopy. Scanning probe microscopes can see nano- and micro-world in three dimensions, essentially being the first 3D micro/nanoscopes. Micronano is Femto: 10-6∙×10-9=10-15. For this reason, our 3D scanning probe microscopes we called "FemtoScan".
The key features of all three devices – 3D-printer, digital machining center and a scanning probe microscope – are similar high-precision systems for moving of parts or sample in three dimensions, similar control electronics with the same algorithms of software, as well as a rigid design with a low temperature drift. 3D microscope FemtoScan can also work as micro/nano machining center, for example, to build three-dimensional images of NanoRaccon (fig.3).
About the technical parameters of the scanning probe microscope FemtoScan was written a lot, now these devices are successfully used in many leading scientific and educational centers. For example, the Nanotechnologies YICC has six full-featured scanning probe microscopes
From nano to macro
As an example of a digital 3D machining center consider a model SCHWEDT 3000. This three-coordinate CNC milling-engraving machine of gantry type is used for 2D, 2.5D and 3D milling of any wood, wood composites, all kinds of plastics, soft metals and alloys (for example aluminium and duralumin). The main characteristics of the machine are given in table.1.
The design of SCHWEDT 3000 is characterized by the following features:
•the height of the span of the gantry (200 mm) allows to process large workpieces, including assembled items (for example, for engraving marking), and also gives the possibility of installing a fourth axis; •Z-axis provides the spindle stroke outside of the treatment area with margin for the cutter (70 mm) and idling (10 mm), which provides easy replacement of the cutters; •four drives are used, two of which bear portal of the machine (dual Y-axis). Due to this the rigidity of the construction is increased and automatic alignment of the portal on perpendicular axes is possible; •the spindle with water cooling ensures low noise and low spread of wastes (no air flow) even without the use of a suction nozzle, what is important when using a fourth axis; •the use of gear racks with accuracy class C7, more resistant to dust than the ballscrew transmission; •brushless servo motors instead of stepper motors (table 2) in all axes. 3D machining centers SCHWEDT already working on the factories. Our next step is to create a full-featured digital machines to handle the entire spectrum of structural materials, including steel, cast iron, titanium, etc.
Join us in the Nanotechnologies YICC! For training and practical exercises at your disposal will be milling and engraving digital machining center, presented on fig.4.
The authors are grateful for the help of Innovation Development Centre of Moscow and Department of Science, Industrial Policy and Entrepreneurship of Moscow. ■